|MARPOL (Pollution Equipment)|
Pollution Prevention Arrangements And Equipment (MARPOL)
The regulations are contained in MARPOL 73/78 and provide means of preventing pollution of the marine environment as per the regulatory strategy at Section 3(17).
Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 is mandatory and is entitled "Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil". Annex 1 is based on the principle that oil and water do not mix and are therefore easily separated. It contains requirements regarding the operation, construction and equipment of ships. The operational requirements stipulate the conditions under which ships may discharge water/oil mixtures into the sea. Overboard discharges are to be above the water line so that discharges are visible. The construction and equipment requirements are such as to enable the shipâ€™s personnel to comply with the discharge conditions. Other construction requirements are such as to minimize the chances of oil cargo tank penetration in the event of damage, i.e. double hull construction and protective location of segregated ballast tanks. Requirements for minimizing oil pollution from oil tankers in the event of side and/or bottom damages penetrating the cargo oil tanks are also included.
Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 is also mandatory and is entitled "Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk". Unlike oil, most chemicals or noxious liquids will mix with water and are not easily separated from it. The main principle of Annex II is to dilute cargo residues in sea water to prescribed limits depending on their pollution hazard and facilitate the distribution of discharges by utilizing the wake of the ship. The discharges are required to be made below the water line and in such a way that the water/residue mixture is retained in the shipâ€™s boundary layer and carried aft when en route to be distributed by the wake astern.
Annex III of MARPOL 73/78 is entitled "Regulation for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Forms, or in Freight Containers, Portable Tanks or Road and Rail Wagons". The regulations are to be implemented through the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. The Regulations are operational only and there are no requirements for surveys and certification.
Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78 is entitled "Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships." This Annex is not yet in force, the entry into force conditions not yet having been satisfied. The regulations contain requirements for surveys and certification of sewage systems and impose operational restrictions regarding sewage discharge.
Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 is entitled "Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships". They are operational only and there are no requirements for surveys and certification.
Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78 is entitled "Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships", but is not yet in force. The target date for entry into force is 31 December 2003. If the conditions for entry into force have not been met by 31 December 2002, the situation will be reviewed urgently by the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) at IMO. The regulations limit discharges into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds from tanker cargoes, sulphur oxide from the combustion of fuel oils and nitrogen oxide from diesel engines. With regard to ozone depleting substances, deliberate discharge is prohibited. New installations which contain ozone depleting substances are prohibited on all ships, except that new installations containing hydrochlorofluorocarbons are permitted until 1 January, 2020.